Homework #3: Model A Toy Car
In this session, we will model a toy truck. This tutorial was adapted from Hatice Bayramoglu’s original tutorial on CG Tuts+.
All credit goes to the original author. I simply adopted their techniques for this class, changed a few steps to make it easier, and added in a few more explanation steps. However, the original concept is still credited to Hatice Bayramoglu.
Please note: Some of my values will differ as this class is being taught using feet and inches, rather than generic 3ds Max units.
Download (right-click the link and “choose save as”), save in the proper location, and open the supplied Max file.
Download me first!
You’ll want to make sure “Edged Faces is Active”. Remember that to toggle from Wireframe to Shaded View is (Hotkey: Shift+W). Also remember that to switch to the Maximized Viewport is (Hotkey: Alt+W). While is Maximized Viewport mode, to switch from the various views is the First Letter of the Viewport as a keyboard shortcut, listed below. The primary views for this tutorial will be the Top, Front, and Right views.
- Top View = Hotkey: T
- Right View = Hotkey: CTRL+R (Remember, R alone is the Scale Tool)
- Front View = Hotkey: CTRL+F (Remember, F alone is Freeze. If you do Freeze something, Y will being up the Unfreeze Object menu.)
- Left View = Hotkey: L
- Orthographic View = Hold down ALT+Middle Mouse and rotate to the desired view.
- Zoom Extents = Hotkey: CTRL+’ (Like AutoCAD this zooms the view to your objects)
Create a box that is 5′ in Length, 3′ in Width, and 5′ in Height in the Top Viewport. Center this box at World origin (0,0,0). Leave all segments at 1, we will add segments as we go.
Convert this box to an Editable Poly (Hotkey: Shift+P), or (1) Right-Click in the viewport to open your Quad Menu, and (2) select Convert To -> Editable Poly.
We now want to add in some edges to we can start to model out the toy’s details. Still in the Top Viewport, activate the Edge Selection (1), (Hotkey: 2). With edge selection active, draw a marquee (Click+Drag) selection around the edges on the top and bottom of the box.
Use the Connect button from either the Modifier Panel or the Quad Menu (2). For this, we want to use the Connect Settings button (3), the window icon looking thing next to the Connect Button.
Click on the settings button, and chose 3 segments to add (4). Click the green Check Mark (5) to finally add in the edges. What you see before you click that button is simply a preview.
Add 3 segments in the Front AND Left viewport using the same technique shown in Step 3. Hint: To simplify this step we can select the edges we want to add segments to and instead of clicking the Connect Settings button, simply click Connect and it will remember the previous settings. Which in this case is adding 3 edges. You should now have a box looking like the one below.
Now we need to add in some edges to help us extrude out the drivers’ compartment of this truck. Right now, we’ve created the base of the truck. To do this, we need to be back into Edge Mode (remember the Hotkey?). Select the edges on the box (1) and choose the Ring button (2) to quickly and easily select every edge we need. Now with those edges still selected, click the Connect Settings (3) button using either method shown in Step 3. Add 1 edge, and also add in a value of -50 to the Slide feature (4). What Slide does is control how far the edges shift over. This helps you from having to connect the edges, then select and move the edge into place. Using Slide, we can all do this from the connect dialog.
Activate (1) Polygon Mode (HotKey: 4) and select the faces (2), then Extrude (3) them a value of 3′. Remember as with the connect process, the bring up the dialog you want to use the Extrude Settings (3) button. Extrude, like most commands, can be accessed through either the Quad Menu or the Modifier Panel.
Add in more edge connections using the same techniques you have been using. Lines you need to add are the ones shown in Red.
Remember to use Connect Settings to change your values and also you will want to make sure that the Slide Value is set back to 0.
Before we proceed, we now want to delete half of the truck. In truth, this step should have been done much earlier, around Step 2, but now is a good time to do this step to avoid having to double our workload. Why you ask? No, I’m not insane. We do this to avoid having to do the exact same work on both sides of the truck. Since this truck is symmetrical, we only want to model one side to completion and then mirror that over to complete the other side in one keystroke.
In the Top Viewport, select the polygons as shown and hit the Delete key. Remember to use the Selection Marquee (Click+Drag). We now should only have half a truck.
In the Orthographic Viewport, select the polygons as shown (1). Extrude these Polygons inwards, simply use the Extrude button and NOT the Settings Button this time (2). Click the Extrude Button, then Click+Drag in the view to move the polygons to the inside of the truck (3). Once you’ve moved the polygons inwards, Right-Click anywhere in the view to deactivate the Extrude command.
With the original polygons still selected, go to the Top View and move them to be aligned with the center of the truck (1). You can move them by hand with your 2.5D Snaps On, or you can simply type in 0 in the X value of the World Coordinates (2). Then delete the original polygons so you will be able to see through the cab (3).
We need to add in some Edge Information to the polygons we just extruded to make sure we can create our front window. Select one of the lines shown in Red (1), use the Ring button to select them all, and (2) Connect 1 edge using all default settings.
In the Top View, align the edge you just created (1), highlighted in Blue, to the existing edge shown (2), highlighted in Pink. You’ll want your 2.5D Snaps On (3) and it may be easier to do this in (4) Vertex Mode (Hotkey: 1). When finished, you should only have the middle line viable, the one highlighted in Pink.
Add in the new edges highlighted in Red. Due to the way Max creates edges, you have to add each line in separate. The top line (1) is connected with a slide value of 50 and the bottom line (2) is connected with a slide value of -50.
Select the faces shown (1) in both the front of the truck and the inside of the cab. With these faces selected, use the (2) Bridge button. This will create a nice inset all the way through to the cab, creating the opening for the front windshield.
After the Bridge function, select the faces shown (3), and delete them.
Note: The more I think about it, we could probably skip this step and just add supporting edges in later on. We need to add a slight chamfer to the driver cab openings, to give it a softer look. Select the edges shown in 1A and 1B, and use the Loop tool to finish the selection.
Once you have the selection, click on the (1) Chamfer Settings button, and enter in a (2) value of .5″ in the dialog menu. You should see a result like the image where you have a beveled edge.
Select the edge shown in Red (1), and move it up in the Z direction to around the area shown in Green (2). You don’t have to be exact, but we need to move this line up to create a better engine compartment in the next few steps.
Add in one edge (1) along the bottom of the truck using default values.
Select the faces shown (1), and extrude them a value of 2′ to create the engine compartment On the inside of the truck, new faces have been created by the extrude, you will need to delete these faces to keep the inside “hollow”.
One the engine compartment, add in 2 new edges (1) using all default values.
Add in the roofs for the truck. These are simple boxes, converted to Editable Polygons, and the verts moved down in the front to give each of these a slight ramp look to it. Using edge connections along with the pinch and slide tools that you’ve been taught, I’ve added in some supporting edges to these roofs. Try to match this as close as you can. Remember to only create half of the roof, we’ll be mirroring it later on, and delete any inside face so that the model looks hollow.
Add the front grill for the truck. Create a box (remember only to create half of it), convert it to an Editable Poly, and have it extend out slightly from the body of the truck.
Add in the edges shown, 5 edges in the vertical, shown in Blue, and 12 edges in the horizontal, shown in Red.
Then use the Bridge tool to create the openings by selected the faces on both sides of the grill at every other line starting from the top, but leaving the last 3 rows in tact.
To give the grill a slight bend, select the verts shown (1), and turn Soft Selection On (2). Make sure that “Affect Backfacing” is Unchecked, and set the falloff distance to 1’0″ (3). Then, move the verts out in the Y direction so you get a slight bowing effect. Soft selection allows you to move one set of verts and have it affect other verts over a distance.
Create some running boards at the bottom of the truck by extruding the bottom faces down, then selected the new faces you just created and extrude them again away from the truck as shown below. The extrusion process may give you some crooked verts, try to keep them straight by making sure they are all in a nice even line. Typically, these uneven verts are at the corners, simply move them in the X/Y directions to line them up.
Create a Cylinder in the Right Viewport with a 1′ Radius and 4″ of height. Keep the Height and Cap Segments at 1 and set the Sides to 24. Convert this to an Editable Poly.
Select BOTH the front and back faces (1) of the cylinder and Inset them 2″ (2).
With the faces still select, do an Inset again but this time use a distance of 6″.
In the Right Viewport, select the faces shown on both sides of the wheel, use Selection Marquees, and do a Bridge operation to cut the holes between the spokes.
In the Right Viewport again, select the inner most face of the wheel and using the Inset operation, roughly match the image below. Don’t worry about being exact.
Then, using Extrudes in both the positive and negative direction, add the detail shown below. Again, do not worry about being exact.
On the back of the wheel, create an inset for the axel and extrude this face to the end of the truck body. Once this is complete, Copy-Instance the wheel to the back of the truck.
Still in the Right Viewport, draw a line (1) (Hotkey: S) roughly outlining the side fender (2). Keep the edges as corners, we will smooth them out in the next step. The Red dots in the image is roughly where I placed a point in the line and numbered in the order to create them. Again, get it close but don’t worry about exactly matching it.
With the line you just drew selected, go into Vertex mode (Hotkey: 1) (1) and select the verts circled in Blue (2). With them selected, Right-Click in the viewport to bring up your Quad-Menu and choose Smooth (3) as a vertex type. You should see those selected verts smooth out. Now, simply adjust them to give yourself a nice curving fender (4). Finally, move the line to the outside of the truck in the general location.
With the line still selected, apply a Sweep Modifier to it from the Modify Panel drop-down menu. Change the type to a Bar (1). With a Length of 10″ and a Width of 6″ (2). Under the Sweep Parameters section, change the sweep pivot to the Lower Right Corner (3).
The toy truck is nearly complete. Now we must ensure that when we apply the Symmetry Modifier, everything will mirror correctly. To do this, select your individual objects and go under the Hierarchy Menu (1) and select “Affect Pivot Only” (2). Make sure their Pivot Points (3) are at X-World Coordinate 0 (4). Make sure you click “Affect Pivot Only” again after you are complete to deactivate this, if you do not you will always be in this mode.
Once you have all of your Pivot Points correct, select the objects and apply the Symmetry Modifier from the Modify Panel drop-down menu. As long as your pivot is correct, your object should mirror itself correctly. You may have to play with the different mirror axis’ (1), such as selecting X, Y, or Z.
For the purposes of this tutorial, we can call the truck complete. Save your file in the proper naming convention and submit it to Blackboard. If you want, you can continue on to add extra detail such as headlights and a front fender.